Russia. No. 1 (1919) - Appendix.




Extract from the" Krasnaya Gazeta" (Organ of Red Army), September 1, 1918.

ARTICLE, entitled "Blood for Blood," begins in the following way :

"We will turn our hearts into steel, which we will temper in the fire of suffering and the blood of fighters for freedom. We will make our hearts cruel, hard, and immovable, so that no mercy will enter them, and so that they will not quiver at the sight of a sea of enemy blood. We will let loose the floodgates of that sea. Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores of hundreds. Let them be thousands ; let them drown themselves in their own blood. For the blood of Lenin and Uritski, Zinovief, and Volodarski, let there be floods of the blood of the bourgeoismore blood, as much as possible."

Extracts from Official Journal. ("Izvestiya"), September 1918.

There are only two possibilitiesthe dictatorship of the bourgeoisie or the dictatorship of the proletariat. . . . . The proletariat will reply to the attempt on Lenin in a manner that will make the whole bourgeoisie shudder with horror.

Assassination at Petrograd of Kommissar Uritsky by Kannegisser Jew Dvoryanin, twenty-two years of age, student, formerly Junker of Artillery School.

"Krasnaya Gazeta" writes: "'Whole bourgeoisie must answer for this act of terror . . . . . Thousands or our enemies must pay for Uritsky's death. . . . . We must teach bourgeoisie a bloody lesson. . . . . Death to the bourgeoisie."


Attempt on Lenin.

Proclamation Issued by the Extraordinary Commission and signed "Peters,"

Proclamation states that "the criminal hand of a member of the Social-Revolutionary Party, directed by the Anglo-French, has dared to fire at the leader of the working class." This crime will be answered by a "massive terror." Woe to those who stand on the path of the working class. All representatives of capital will be sent to forced labour, and their property confiscated. Counter-revolutionaries will be exterminated and crushed beneath the heavy hammer of the revolutionary proletariat.

Petrovsky, Kommissar for Interior, issues circular telegraphic order reproving local Soviets for their "extraordinarily insignificant number of serious repressions and mass shootings of White Guards and bourgeoisie." An immediate end must be put to these grandmotherly methods. All Right Social-Revolutionaries must be immediately arrested. Considerable numbers of hostages must be taken from bourgeoisie and former officers. At the slightest attempt at resistance, or the slightest movement in White Guard circles, mass shootings of hostages must be immediately employed. Indecisive and irresolute action in this matter on the part of local Soviets will be severely dealt with.



The Council of the People's Commissaries, having considered the report of the chairman of the Extraordinary Commission* found that under the existing conditions it was most necessary to secure the safety of the rear by means of terror. To strengthen the activity of the Extraordinary Commission, and render it more systematic, as many responsible party comrades as possible are to be sent to work on the Com-mission. The Soviet Republic must be made secure against its class enemies by sending them to concentration camps.

* The Extraordinary Commission are responsible for the trials and executions, and for executions without trial. Their work is sometimes done in camerậ.

All persons belonging to White Guard organisations or involved in conspiracies and rebellions are to be shot. Their names and the particulars of their cases are to be published. ("Northern Commune," September 9, 1918.)

Tver, 9th September.The Extraordinary Commission has arrested and sent to concentration camps over 130 hostages from among the bourgeoisie. The prisoners include members of the Cadet party, Socialist-Revolutionaries of the Right, former officers, well-known members of the propertied classes and policemen.

("Northern Commune," September 10, 1918.)

Jaroslav, 9th September.In the whole of the Jaroslav Government a strict registration of the bourgeoisie and its partisans has been organised. Manifestly anti-Soviet elements are being shot ;suspected persons are interned in concentration camps ; non-working sections of the population are subjected to compulsory labour.

("Northern Commune," September 10, 1918.)

Atkarsk, 11th September.Yesterday martial law was proclaimed in the town. Eight counter-revolutionaries were shot.

("Northern Commune," September 12, 1918.)

Borisoglebsk, 16th September. For an attempt to organise a movement in opposition to the Soviet power, nine local counter-revolutionaries were shot, namely two rich land-owners, six merchants and the local “Corn King" Vasiliev.

("Northern Commune," September 16,No. 106.)

Resolution passed by the Soviet of the First Urban District of Petrograd :

". . . . The meeting welcomes the fact that mass terror is being used against the White Guards and higher bourgeois classes, and declares that every attempt on the life of any of our leaders will be answered by the proletariat by shooting down not only of hundreds, as is the case now, but of thousands of White Guards, bankers, manufacturers, Cadets (constitutional democrats) and Socialist-Revolutionaries of the Right."

("Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.)

In Astrakhan the Extraordinary Commission has shot ten Socialist-Revolutionaries of the Right involved in a plot against the Soviet power. In Karamyshef a priest named Lubimof and a deacon named Kvintil have been shot for revolutionary agitation against the decree separating the Church from the State, and for an appeal to overthrow the Soviet Government. In Perm, in retaliation for the assassination of Uritzky and for the attempt on Lenin, fifty hostages from among the bourgeois classes and the White Guards were shot (a few names are given). In Sebesh a priest named Kirkevich was shot for counter-revolutionary propaganda, and for having said masses for the late Nicholas Romanov.

("Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.)

The following telegram has been received from the Cavalry Corps Staff : “Additional arrests have been made in connection with the affair of former officers and Civil Service officials involved in preparing a rising in Vologda. When the plot was discovered they fled to Archangel and to Murmansk. The prisoners were caught disguised as peasants; all had forged papers on them.The political department of the Corps has in its possession receipts for sums of money received by the arrested persons from the British through Colonel Kurtenkof. In connection with this affair fifteen have been shot, mostly military men. Among them were General Astashof, Military Engineer Bodrovolsky, Captain Nikitin and two SocialistRevolutionaries of the LeftSudotin and Tourba. Apart from these, the Commander of the Expeditionary Detachment, the sailor Shimansky, who was not equal to the situation was also shot.

("Northern Commune," September 19, 1918.)

"To overcome our enemies we must have our own Socialist Militarism. We must win over to our side, 90 millions out of the 100 millions of population of Russia under the Soviets. As for the rest, we have nothing to say to them ; they must be annihilated."

(Speech by Zinoviev : reported in the "Northern Commune," September 19, No. 109.)

The work of the Extraordinary Commission is most responsible and calls for the greatest restraint of their members. Do they possess this restraint? Unfortunately, I cannot discuss here whether and how far all the arrests and executions carried out in various places by the Extraordinary Commissions were really necessary. On this point there are differences of opinion in the party. . . . . The absence of the necessary restraint makes one feel appalled at the "instruction" issued by the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to "All Provincial Extraordinary Commissions," which says :―"The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission is perfectly independent in its work, carrying out house searches, arrests, executions, of which it afterwards reports to the Council of the People's Commissaries and to the Central Executive Council." Further, the Provincial and District Extraordinary Commissions " are independent in their activities, and when called upon by the local Executive Council present a report of their work." In so far as house searches and arrests are concerned, a report made afterwards may result in putting right irregularities committed owing to lack of restraint. The same cannot be said of executions . . . . . It can also be seen from the "instruction" that personal safety is to a certain extent guaranteed only to members of the Government, of the Central Executive Council and of the local Executive Committees. With the exception of these few persons all members of the local committees of the (Bolshevik) party, of the Control Committees and of the Executive Committee of the party may be shot at any time by the decision of any Extraordinary Commission of a small district town if they happen to be on its territory, and a report of that made afterwards.

(From an article by M. Alminsky, "Pravda," October 8, 1918.)

Comrade Bokif gave details of the work of the Petrograd District Commission since the evacuation of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to Moscow. The total number of arrested persons was 6,220. 800 were shot.

(From a report of a meeting of the Conference of the Extraordinary Commission, "Izvestia," October 19, 1918, No. 228.)

A riot occurred in the Kirsanof district. The rioters shouted, "Down with the Soviets." They dissolved the Soviet and the Committee of the Village Poor. The riot was suppressed by a detachment of the Soviet troops. Six ringleaders were shot. The case is under examination.

("Izvestia," November 5, 1918.)

By order of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd several officers were shot for spreading untrue rumours that the Soviet authority had lost the confidence f the people.

All relatives of the officers of the 86th Infantry Regiment (which deserted to the Whites) were shot.

("Northern Commune" [quoted from "Russian Life” (Helsingfors) ], March 11, 1919.)


Orel.To-day the Oel bourgeoisie commenced compulsory work to which it was made liable. Parties of the bourgeoisie, thus made to work, are cleaning the streets and squares from rubbish and dirt.

("Izvestia," October 19, No. 288.)

Chembar.The bourgeoisie put to compulsory work is repairing the pavements and the roads.

("Pravda," October 6, 1918, No. 205.)

If you come to Petrograd you will see scores of bourgeoisie laying the pavement in the courtyard of the Smolny. . . . I wish you could see how well they unload coal on the Neva and clean the barracks.

(From a speech by Zinoviev, " Pravda," October 11, No, 219.)

Large forces of mobilised bourgeoisie have been sent to the front to do trench work.

("Krasnaya Gazeta," October 16,1918.)

A Camp for the Bourgeoisie.

The District Extraordinary Commission (Saransk) has organised a camp of concentration for the local bourgeoisie and kulaki (the close-fisted).

The duties of the confined shall consist in keeping clean the town of Saransk.

The existence of the camp will be maintained at the expense of the same bourgeoisie.

("Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, November 6,1918, No. 237.)


The Fight against Desertion.

The “Goios Krasnoarmeytza" (Voice of the Red Armyman), of the 2nd February, issued at Yamburg by the Sixth Light Infantry Division, contains the following announcement :

"In view of the mass desertions of Red Army men and the necessity of putting a stop to those citizens agitating among them against Soviet authority, and spreading among them false rumours, causing panic among the army and in the rear, and also concealing deserters, persons who are in reality agents of Anglo-French capital, such persons are subject to arrest and to delivery to trial by the Military Revolutionary Tribunal as enemies of the workers' and peasants' government.

"All town, district, and village Soviets of the frontal zone of the Yamburg district and of the neighbouring districts are instructed by the military Soviet of the division and by the Yamburg district Executive Committee to bring to the immediate notice of the Military Revolutionary Tribunal all cases of wandering Red Army men, to detain all persons spreading false rumours, to arrest private persons as well as Red Army men detected in selling or buying military arms and munitions, and to place on all roads barrier-guards and patrols for the apprehension of deserters.

"The Military Revolutionary Tribunal brings to the notice of Red Army men that the time for words and exhortation has passed, and that the time has come demanding the conscious performance of the tasks of the Soviet Republic.

"The concealment and the misplaced solicitude of workmen and peasants in relation to deserters are abetting the licentiousness and idleness in the ranks of the Red Army.

"A deserter needs neither bread nor a refuge, but a bullet.

"Bread and a refuge are due only to the proletariat Red Army.

"(The Military Revolutionary Tribunal at the Front.)"


Arrest of the Labour Conference.

An open letter of the delegates, kept in the Moscow Taganka Prison, to all citizens:

"We, members of the Labour Conference, representing independent working-class organisations of various towns of Russia (Petrograd, Moscow, Tula, Sormova, Kolomna, Kulebaki, Tver, Nijni-Novgorod, Vologda, Bezshiza, Orel, Votkinski Zavod), arrested at our second meeting, on the 23rd July, in the 'Co-operation Hall,' feel it our public duty to protest before all citizens of Russia, against the false and calumnious reports published by the Bolshevik Government press on the 27th and 28th July. The Bolshevik Government takes advantage of the fact that it has muzzled the whole independent press and that we, members of the Labour Conference, are locked up in prison, under incredible conditions.

"Our Conference was not 'a secret counter-revolutionary plot organised by well-to-do people and intellectuals,' &c., but a public conference of delegates of working-class organisations, which was beforehand known to and discussed by the whole press, including that of the Bolsheviks.

"The delegates were sent to the Conference not by 'Menshevik or Socialist-Revolutionaries' groups' as falsely stated in the 'Izvestia,' which desires to deceive workmen who have not yet deserted the Government, but by assemblies of delegates from works and factories who have tens of thousands of electors behind them. The adopted general basis of representation was one delegate for 5,000 workmen. The ‘Izvestia' goes so far as to state shamelessly that the delegates Polikarpof and Pushkin, sent by the Tula workmen, were elected by 60 or 160 men, whereas they were sent by the Tula assembly, which consisted of delegates elected by the majority of Tula workmen. At places where independent workmen's organisations could not yet be set up, delegates to the Conference were sent by individual big factories.

"Having calumniously described the delegates as impostors who represent nobody, the 'Izvestia,' with the indolence characteristic of the organs of the Tsarist régimedid not stop at giving false information about things found on the arrested delegates in order to cast a shadow on their characters. Thus, it is reported that Comrade Berg was found to be in possession of 6,000 roubles. As a matter of fact, he had only 590* roubles. Comrade Leikin is stated to have had 160 roubles, and he had in fact 1 rouble 65 kopecks. The 'Izvestia' further states that on Leikin the following things were found: a ring, diamonds, and a gold watch, whereas all his ‘jewellery' consisted of an ordinary gun-metal watch, which it did not occur even to the prison warders to take away.

*At present equal to about 15 l.

"The Bolshevik Government has to resort to stupid, shameless lies to justify the preposterous arrests of the workmen's delegates who dared to show some independent organising initiative.

"The conference of workmen's delegates was convened to make arrangements for the convocation of an All-Russian Labour Congress, and had held two meetings. The agenda of the Conference included the following items :Measures against the disinter-gration of the working-class movement; what can be done to effect a concen-tration of its forces and its proper organisation ; arrangements for the All-Russian Labour Conference. But the Communist Government, just as its Tsarist predecessors, do not tolerate any symptoms of an independent working-class movement, because it is this movement which constitutes a menace to their power. In this movement they see a reflection of the food crisis, and, incapable of solving the State problems which they have before them, they resort to repressive measures directed against the leaders of the working-class movement.Workmen's organisations are subjected to unheard-of repressions.

"Long live the working. class organizations!

"Long live their independence, their revolutionary and organising initiative!

"('Signed') A. N. Smirnof, workman of the Cartridge Factory, delegate from Petrograd; N. N. Gliebof, of workman of Poutilof Works; J. S. Leikin, delegate the Assembly of Delegates of the Nijni and Vladimir districts. Workmen:D.V. Zakharof,secretary of a trade union;D.I. Zakharof,Sormovo; V. I. Matveef, Sormovo; A. A. Vezkalm, carpenter, member of the Exec-utive Committee of the Lettish Social Democratic Party; I. G. Volkof, turner, member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Union of Metal Workers; A. A. Chinenkof, Nijni; S. P. Polikarpof, Tula ; N. K. Borisenko, Petrograd Tube Works ; V. G. Chirkin, turner, member of the All–Russian Council of Trade Unions; Berg, Electrical Works; D. Smirnof, Arsenal, Petrograd; Victor Alter, delegate of the Executive Committee of the Bund” (Jewish Socialist Party); Pushkin, workman of the Tula Small Arms Factory, &c."

("Workers' International" : (organ of the Petrograd Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party), August 7, 1918).

The imaginary dictatorship of the proletariat has definitely turned into the dictatorship of the Bolshevik party,which attracted all sorts of adventurers and suspicious characters and is supported only by the naked force of hired bayonets. Their sham socialism resulted in the complete destruction of Russian industry, in the country's enslavement to foreign capital, in the destruction of all class organisations of the proletariat, in the suppression of all democratic liberty and of all organs of democratic State life, thus preparing the ground for a bourgeois counter-revolution of the worst and most brutal kind.

The Bolsheviks are unable to solve the food problem, and their attempt to bribe the proletariat by organising expeditions into the villages in order to seize supplies of bread drives the peasantry into the arms of the counter-revolution and threatens to rouse its hatred towards the town in general, and the proletariat in particular, for a long time to come . . . .

In continuing the struggle against the Bolshevik tyranny which dishonours the Russian revolution, social democracy pursues the following aims: (1) To make it impossible for the working class to have to shed its blood for the sake of maintaining the sham dictatorship of the toiling masses or of the sham socialistic order, both of which are bound to perish and are meanwhile killing the soul and body of the proletariat; (2) To organize the working-class into a force which, in union with other democratic forces of the country, will be able to throw off the yoke of the Bolshevik régime, to defend the democratic conquests of the revolution and to oppose any reactionary force which would attempt to hang a millstone around the neck of the Russian democracy . . . .

Forty delegates elected by workmen of various towns, to a conference, for the purpose of making arrangements for the convocation of a Labour Congress, have been arrested and committed for trial by the Supreme Revolutionary Tribunal, created to pass death sentences without the ordinary guarantees of a fair trial. They are falsely and calumniously accused of organising a counter-revolutionary plot. Among the arrested are the most prominent workers of the Social Democratic Labour movement, as, for instance, Abramovitch, member of the Central Executive Committees of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and of the "Bund," who is personally well-known to many foreign comrades ; Alter, member of the Executive Committee of the "Bund" ; Smirnof, member of last year's Soviet Delegation to the Western Countries ; Vezkaln, member of the Executive Committee of the Lettish Social Democratic Party ; Volkof, chairman of the Petrograd Union of Workmen's Co-operative Societies; Zakharof, secretary of the Petrograd Union of Workmen of Chemical Factories ; and other prominent workers of the trade union and co-operative movement.

We demand immediate intervention of all Socialist parties to avert the shameful and criminal proceeding.

(Protest of the Social Democratic Labour Party and of the Jewish Socialist Party sent to the Executive Committees of all Socialist Parties of Europe and America, August, 1918.)

The Extraordinary Commission of the Union of Northern Communes at a meeting of October 22nd, considered the legal cases connected with the sailors' mutiny of October 14th. It was found on examination that the movement was organised by the Petrograd Committee of the Socialist Revolutionaries of the left, the resolution passed by the sailors of the 2nd Baltic Squadron having been framed with the assistance of members of the above Committee, approved of by the Conference of the party, which sent its greetings to the sailors. Apart from this, the resolution was printed on a cyclostyle in the premises of the above Committee, which delegated their party agitators to the sailors' meeting. At the head of the organisation were thirteen persons. Two escaped. Al the other were sentenced by the Extraordinary Commission to be shot.

("Izvestia," October 31st, 1918.)

By the decision of the Extraordinary Commission the Socialist-Revolutionary, Firsof, has been shot. Firsof was executed for writing and distributing leaflets in which the Socialist-Revolutionaries invited workmen to give allegiance to the Archangel Government.

("Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.)

The Extraordinary Commission of the Province has arrested the leading members of the local organisation of Left and Right Social Revolutionaries for the spreading of proclamations. In connection with the discovery of the plot, some Left Social Revolutionaries have been arrested in Moscow. An agitation has been conducted in the Red Army for the overthrow of Soviet authority. Proclamations were distributed calling for a struggle against Soviet authority, for the immediate organisation of committees and for the encouragement, through chosen commanders, of a campaign of terror against Trotsky and other prominent leaders of the Communist party. The agitation and the proclamations were without success. The responsible worker of the Kaluga Provisions Commissariat, the Left Social Revolutionary, Prigalin, was arrested. A rough draft of a proclamation, in the name of the party, calling for the overthrow of the Bolsheviks and the establishment of a coalition without the Bolsheviks, was found on him

(Russian Wireless, February 22, 1919.)

The Tribunal dealing with Mme. Spiridonova (the leader of the Social Revolutionary party, who was recently arrested on a charge of conspiracy against the Soviet authority) has decided, in view of the abnormal state of mind of the accused, to isolate her from all political and social activity for the duration of a year.

Mme. Spiridonova is to be detained in a sanatorium, where she will be allowed facilities for recreation and intellectual work.

(Russian Wireless, February 26, 1919.)

Don't be like the "Old Masters."

In one of the Sunday numbers of the" Krasnaya Gazeta" there was an article by comrade Kuznetzof under the title "The Eleventh." In this article he recalled how arrogantly, how appallingly, the old masters conducted themselves toward workingmen.

Yes, comrade Kuznetzof, it is unpleasant and humiliating to recall this gentry, but it is even more unpleasant and humiliating to meet the same kind of "old masters" at the present time. I know very many comrades who occupy various responsible posts in unions and committees, and when you happen to turn to them with some enquiry or request for co-operation, they are no better than the masters of the old régime : they answer either rudely and arrogantly, or they do not answer at all.

It is humiliating to see this at the present time. And I say to such comrades : “Don't be, if I may so express myself, like the 'old masters.' Go to meet the oppressed and the poor. Train yourselves in this spirit, and only then call yourselves Communists and protectors of the working man. Hands off, all those who do not act as they speak!"

([Letter from a Working man.] "Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 29, 1918, No. 230.)


The Suppression of the Paper "Mir" (Peace). ― In accordance with the decision published in the “Izvestia" on the 27th July, No 159, the Press Department granted permits to issue periodical publications which accepted the Soviet platform. When granting permissions, the Press Department took into consideration the available supplies of paper, whether the population was in need of the proposed periodical publication, and also the necessity of providing employment for printers and pressmen. Thus, permission was granted to issue the paper "Mir," especially in view of the publisher's declaration that the paper was intended to propagate pacifist ideas. At the present moment the requirements of the population of the Federal Socialist Republic for means of daily information are adequately met by the Soviet publications ; employment for those engaged in journalistic work is secured in the Soviet papers ; a paper crisis is approaching. The Press Department, therefore, considers it impossible to permit the further publication of the "Mir," . . . . and has decided to suppress this paper for ever.

("Izvestia," October 17, 1918, No. 226.)

The Central Executive Committee has confirmed the decision to close the newspaper, "Vsegda Vperiod," as its appeals for the cessation of civil war appear to be a betrayal of the working-class.

(Russian Wireless, February 26, 1919.)


To the Notice of the House Committees of Poverty.

On 20th July of the present year there was published obligatory regulation No. 27, to the following effect :―

"Every house committee in the city of Petrograd and other towns, included in the Union of Communes of the Northern region, is under obligation to subscribe, paying for same, one copy of the newspaper, the "Northern Commune" (the official organ of the Soviets of the Northern region).

"The newspaper should be given to every resident in the house on the first demand.

"Chairman of the Union of the Communes of the Northern region, Gr. Zinoviev.

"Commissary of printing, N. Kuzmin."

However, until now the majority of houses, inhabited pre-eminently by the bourgeoisie, do not fulfil the above-expressed obligatory regulation, and the working population of such houses is deprived of the possibility of receiving the "Northern Commune” in its house committees.

Therefore, the publishing office of the "Northern Commune" brings to the notice of all house committees that it has undertaken, through the medium of especial emissaries, the control of the fulfilment by house committees of the obligatory regulation No. 27, and all house committees which cannot show a receipt for a subscription to the newspaper, the "Northern Commune," will be immediately called to the most severe account for the breaking of the obligatory regulation.

Subscriptions will be received in the main office and branches of the "Northern Commune" daily, except Sundays and holidays, from 10 to 4.

("Severnaya Kommuna," Petrograd, November 10, 1918, No. 150.)


At the People's Court at Moscow was heard the case of Priest Filimonof, accused of circulating the book, "Who Governs Us."

In his book the author defamed the Soviet Government. The Court sentenced the reverend father ("batiushka") to ten years of public work.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 10, 1918, No. 214.)


1. All societies, unions, and associations―political, economic, artistic, religious, &c.― formed on the territory of the Union of the Commune of the Northern Region must be registered at the corresponding Soviets or Committees of the village poor.

2. The constitution of the union or society, a list of founders and members of the committee, with names and addresses, and a list of all members, with their names and addresses, must be submitted at registration.

3. All books, minutes, &c., must always be kept at the disposal of representatives of the Soviet power for purposes of revision.

4. Three days' notice must be given to the Soviet, or to the Committee of the village poor, of all public and private meetings.

5. All meetings must be open to the representatives of the Soviet power, viz., the representatives of the Central and District Soviet, the Committee of the Poor, and the Kommandatur of the Revolutionary Secret Police Force (Okhrana).

6. Unions and societies which do not comply with those regulations will be regarded as counter-revolutionary organisations, and prosecuted.

("Northern Commune," September 13, 1918, No. 103.)


(a.) Wages.

The Rise in Wages.

In the last number of the" Narodnoye Khoziaystvo" (National Economy) are given the figures of the progress of wages in Russia during the decade of 1908-1918.

In general, wages have risen during the ten years from 1200 to 1300 per cent.

The highest rise has taken place in the textile industry, in which it has reached 1736 per cent. In the leather trade the wages have gone up in the same time 1501 per cent., in the colour printing industry 1440 per cent., in the writing paper industry 1434 per cent., in the metal and woodwork industries 1004 per cent., in the chemical industry 1069 per cent., and in the food products industry 1286 per cent.

It is necessary to remark that the greatest changes have occurred in those branches of industry which received smaller wages in previous years, as for example, the textile industry. In this connection the wages of the women workers have risen relatively far in excess of those of the men workers. In the leather industry they have reached a 2500 per cent. increase, in the textile industry 2127 per cent.

("Pravda," Moscow, October 24, 1918, No. 230.)

(b.) Food.

What they can get with their Higher Wages: The Bread Ration.

The Commissary of Food of the Petrograd Labour Commune informs that on Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, for four days, the following products will be given, on the presentation of the bread cards, according to category :―

1st category.— 1 lb. (Russian) of bread and 3 lb. of potatoes.

2nd category.—½ lb. of bread and 2 lb. of potatoes.

3rd category.—¼ lb. of bread and 1 lb. of potatoes.

4th category.— ½ lb. of potatoes.

("Vooruzheny Narod" (the Armed People), Petrograd, October 9, 1918, No. 71.)

Rations for October.

For the month of October the second free coupon will be available for the following products :―

1st category.―1 lb. of fresh fish, ¼ lb. of leeks.

2nd category.―Two herrings, ¼ lb. of leeks.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (the Red Gazette), October 10, 1918, No. 214.)

The Population of Petrograd.

The population of Petrograd is continuing steadily to decrease. According to figures furnished by the Department of Statistics of the Food Commissariat, at the beginning of the month of October there were 1,120,354 food cards in the hands of the population. Of this number there were 308,156 cards in the 1st category, 424,558 in the 2nd, 85,691 in the 3rd, and 1,669 in the 4th.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (the Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 16, 1918, No. 219.)

The Vegetable Ration for the Month of October,

Owing to the increased arrival of vegetables in Petrograd during the month of October the third free coupon of the food cards will become available for the following, according to category :―

1st category.―3 lb. of cabbage and 1 lb. of onions.

2nd category.―2 lb. of cabbage and 1 lb. of onions.

Owing to technical conditions the vegetables will be given out according to their arrival at the stores of the Commissariat, that is, not simultaneously in all the districts.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (the Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 22, 1918, No. 224.)

The Commissariat of Food.

The Food Commissariat of the Petrograd Workers' Commune informs the population that in February the adult population and children of all ages will be able to obtain on the presentation of their food cards (Coupon 14) :―

1st category.―1 lb. of sand sugar.

2nd category.― ½ lb. of sand sugar.

("Severnaya Kommuna," Petrograd, February 6, 1919.)


In consequence of a complete absence of groats, white flour, and milk products, children suffer immensely. The mortality is great.

("Izvestia," November 2, No 240.)

(c.) Health.

In the districts of the Viatka Government Spanish sickness is raging. There is no medical help, no drugs are available. The population, frightened by the high mortality, asks for help. There is an epidemic of grippe in Sitnir Volost; 200 have died. Good agitators are urgently required.

("Izvestia," October 31, 1918.)

Disease: Eruptive typhus.

Last week there were 967 registered cases of eruptive typhus in Petrograd, as against 820 registered cases the previous week.

("Izvestia," Moscow, February 7, 1919, No. 28 (580).)

From an analysis of the "Krasnaya Gazeta" (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, we get the following facts :―

In the issue of October 10, 1918, there are 39 advertisements. Of these, 23 deal with syphilis treatment.

In the issue of October 11 there are 33 advertisements. Of these, 18 deal with syphilis treatment.

Of the 36 advertisements in the issue of October 16, 18 deal with syphilis.

Of the 42 advertisements in the issue of November 6, 25 deal with syphilis and other venereal diseases.

(d.) Requisitions.

At a plenary sitting of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies of the city region, in connection with events in Germany, a resolution was passed in favour of sending a greeting to the German proletariat, and promise of being in readiness for sending assistance in the form of arms and food.

In connection with this, in view of the fact that this question is inevitably bound up with the security of our Red Army, the Soviet has decided to take the measure of requisitioning warm things belong to the bourgeoisie for the Red Army.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 11, 1918, No. 215.)

The collection of warm things without the 1,000-rouble fine has been prolonged until October 20, inclusive.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 16, 1918, No. 219.)

(e.) Compulsory Labour.

Compulsory Labour for Hawkers, Cabmen, &c.

Within a few days a registration will be made of all hawkers, cabmen, and unemployed of both sexes.

All these persons will be summoned to do urgent work caused by special conditions.

("Krasnaya Gazeta" (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, November 2, 1918, No. 234.)

The Central Committee of the Revolutionary Communist Party informs all party organisations that all responsible workmen, Ukranians, Letts, White Russians, and comrades of other nationalities, will be freed from their local labours, and sent to their own country only by permission of the Central Committee. All secondary workmen will be freed by permission of the local organisations if their departure from their posts does not involve a breakdown of the local work.

(Russian Wireless, February 5, 1919.)


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